Friday

Japanese Beetles - Know the Enemy


Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) don't get the publicity they deserve. They're a success story. They can spell Armageddon for some of the most popular plant varieties maintained in backyard gardens, and once entrenched in a neighborhood, are almost impossible to eradicate completely. That doesn't mean you should give up trying, though. Japanese beetles are formidable foes, but they do have their kryptonite. The problem is there are lots of them, and most successful methods for eliminating them take planning. Think of it as warfare. The best campaigns use well-planned strategies that take time and consistent effort to pull off. Once you accept that one bucket of soapy water or a single spray session with a bottle of insecticide isn't going to do it, regardless of your level of gardening skill, it's easier to sign on for the long term fight. Is it painful? Sure. There will be losses. The good news is diligent effort pays off.


They Come from New Jersey?


Don't think you're being targeted by an unfair universe intent on turning your rose bushes into lace doilies. In the U.S. Japanese beetles are so pesky because they have fewer natural predator controls than indigenous species. These pests are Japanese imports (in case you thought the name meant something else), stowaways that made landfall in New Jersey around 1916. In their native land, they aren't nearly the problem they are here. They've been migrating west, gobbling up a smorgasbord of domestic and exotic plant species. Today they're active in 30 states, so at least you're not alone in your frustration and grief over plant losses. JB's are known to feed on at least 275 different plant species, and the annual cost to the turf industry alone is over $460 million. Many of their favorite meals are also popular garden plants.


Japanese Beetles - Know the Enemy


They like it wet


It isn't all bad news. Weather can have an impact on how active Japanese beetles will be in a given year. They are less abundant during hot, dry summers, and reproduce in fewer numbers, so there's some residual bounty in drought years. The flip side is they love warm, wet weather. If you've had a soggy summer, expect problems again next year if you don't do something to control their numbers.

They live underground most of the time
Japanese beetle eggs


By summer's end, it may seem as though you've been battling Japanese beetles forever, but they're actually only active for six to eight weeks. After that, the adults will have laid their eggs and died. Those eggs in your lawn and flowerbeds turn into grubs that will feed on grass and other plant roots over the autumn and winter, and emerge next spring. How much time do they spend in the soil? That would be around 10 months a year.

Mark your calendar


Depending on where you're located, Japanese beetles will surface sometime between Mid-May and mid-July. A good rule of thumb is the farther south you are, the sooner you're landscape is likely to warm up and trigger their appearance. They're pretty predictable, emerging around the same time in an area year after year. If you started seeing them the second week in June, you can plan for next year's assault around the second week in June.

Japanese Beetle Deterrents You Should Know About


There are some natural deterrents to Japanese beetles, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture is even taking steps to help:

Milky Spore and Japanese Beetles
Milky disease, or milky spore, is a bacteria (Paenibacillus popilliae aka Bacillus popilliae) that lives near the surface of the soil where plant roots are abundant. This is also the zone inhabited by freshly hatched or young JB grubs (larvae). If present, grubs will ingest milky spore as they feed on grass and other roots. Within one to three weeks, the bacteria will kill the grubs, multiplying and releasing new generations of beneficial bacteria into the soil. Milky spore is safe around humans and pets, and benign to earthworms, bees and other common beneficial insects. Even though it is often criticized as only working on JB grubs (which seems like enough if your garden is infested), current research suggests milky spore can be effective against other types of white grubs as well.

Although you may have a little milky spore in your soil already, especially if you live in some East Coast regions, you can introduce more, but timing is important. Grubs hatch around August in most locations, and will feed in the "spore" zone until temperatures cool down, after which they will burrow deeper and feed little if at all. Apply milky spore then or before, when the soil temperature is at or above 65 degrees F and likely to remain that way for a while. One big advantage to a successful application is that it will remain viable in the soil for a long time. There is a difference of opinion on this, but some research suggests one application can provide additional JB defense for a decade or more.

Nematode
Nematodes and Japanese Beetles
Nematodes are another biological defense against Japanese beetles. There are lots of different types of nematodes, a kind of microscopic roundworm.  Some are beneficial because they attack and kill destructive insects, and others are themselves nasty customers and best avoided. Beneficial nematodes are available as a packaged natural defense against Japanese beetles and other soil dwelling pests. Some wood boring pests may also qualify for eradication this way. Beneficial nematodes are known as natural grub killers, and different varieties can have an impressive list of victims. Many products include a blend of different worm types like:


  • Steinernema carpocapsae
  • Steinernema feltiae
  • Steinernema glaseri
  • Heterorhabditis bacteriophora


Working together, they will destroy the bugs you love to hate, like: Japanese beetles (of course), vine borers, bagworms, cucumber beetles, flea beetles, outdoor fleas and weevils. Most beneficial insects like bees, earthworms and ladybugs are unaffected.

Although treatment recommendations will vary by manufacturer, most involve mixing nematodes with water and spraying them on your soil and lawn. You can apply a nematode mixture with a hose or pump sprayer. Because they are alive -- and small, check Amazon or another supplier for satisfaction ratings on any product you're interested in. Common customer complaints include receiving suspected dead batches. This can be hard to determine. A high satisfaction rating is a hedge against receiving dead or dying nematodes.  It's also important to note that different nematode blends affect different pest species, so be sure you choose a product that will kill the range of pests you prefer. Japanese beetles are a favorite for nematode products, so they're included in most blends.

The application window for nematodes is similar to that of milky spore, with the exception of a spring application option that will kill grubs before they emerge, but after they've done plenty of root damage, so not ideal as a single application strategy. Some products recommend twice yearly applications, but once communities of nematodes are in your soil, they'll keep you protected indefinitely unless you kill them with pesticides.

Products are rated for the size of the area to be covered. You can buy nematode products at many local garden centers and online. Be aware this is a seasonal, time sensitive product with a limited shelf life. There are living critters in the bottle or box, so don't make the mistake of leaving them in your roasting hot car or on your porch during an early freeze. It's also a good idea to review the application directions carefully. Some products can be applied multiple times (usually dried varieties), while others are a one shot proposition.

Pesticides and DIY
Japanese beetle grub (larva)
Nematode and milky spore will help reduce JB populations living and thriving on your property, but won't do much to stop visitors that fly in from your neighbor's yard looking for a snack. For that you can use *pesticide (the USDA recommends Malathion, chlorpyrifos, diazinon and trichlorfon), or employ a guerilla warfare tactic by just knocking any beetles you see into a bucket of soapy water and letting their reeking corpses discourage latecomers.

I've discussed these choices in other posts, and they do work. The numbers can be against you, though. Some neighborhoods are so infested that targeted responses like these are overwhelmed. You can kill hundreds of beetles in a day, and tomorrow there'll be plenty more to take their place. Many pesticides require direct contact with the pest, and that requires very regular respraying, which can get expensive and be devastating for beneficial insects like bees (who have a tough enough time of it already).

Staying with a pesticide or soapy bucket program will reduce the impact of an infestation over time and discourage beetles from laying eggs on your property, which is good news for next year.

With regard to the bucket idea, if you start early enough, like in the first few days after JBs emerge, you may be able to keep damage to a minimum. The theory here is that early risers lay down scent markers for others to follow. If your property isn't marked extensively, later swarms may bypass you for more enticing locations.

Grubs make great snacks for chickens. Yum (Cluck)
Japanese Beetle Predators
Beyond adding milky spore and beneficial nematodes, insects have been pressed into service to combat the Japanese beetle problem in the U.S. Two types of wasps, (spring and fall tiphia) have been imported from Korea and Japan respectively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and released in area specific campaigns to control crop losses. These little wasps are among the Japanese beetle's natural predators. Unlike the ladybug and praying mantis, you can't purchase and release your own wasps to patrol the garden, but their introduction to the U.S. may have an impact on JB populations going forward.

You can also look to the skies for relief. Some birds love to chow down on JBs. So, if you're willing to offer up some seed to attract them, and share a few of your garden's earthworms, a little hired help never hurts. Expect mayhem, and hang around for the show. Here are some likely feathered candidates:


  • Blue Jays
  • Bobwhites
  • Catbirds
  • Chickens
  • Crows
  • English Sparrows
  • European Starlings
  • Grackles
  • Killdeers
  • Kingbirds
  • Orioles
  • Purple Martins
  • Robins
  • Seagulls
  • Sparrows
  • Swallows
  • Woodpeckers 



Traps
The idea of using pheromones to attract Japanese beetles to a location where they can be trapped and killed sounds great. You don't even have to get dirty in the process. When the USDA and others tested this method of JB control, it didn't do too well, though. Although traps do a good job of attracting beetles, they only secure about 75 percent, leaving 25 percent to roam around your yard. In some cases, you could get stuck with more bugs than you had yesterday, even after the trap kill-off. One clever reader suggested giving traps to your neighbors as gifts, which could have the effect of luring JBs out of your yard and into theirs. If you try it, don't expect a fruit basket at for Christmas (Hanukah, Kwanzaa).


They Want to Live in Your New Landscape


Japanese beetles are more abundant in newer neighborhoods. Yes, it's true. The experts believe this is probably because there's plenty of virgin lawn and tender, immature shrubbery in new residential construction, along with fewer natural enemies around to spoil the fun.

Working with a new landscape creates a good opportunity to choose your plants wisely and prefer options JBs don't like, but even an established garden can benefit from some strategic reorganization.  Some gardeners are surprised when their landscapes suddenly and (almost) inexplicably become JB targets. This can usually be traced to adding attractant plants like roses or blueberries. This list of Japanese beetle preferred plants should help in your planning:

Trees and Plants Japanese Beetle Like:


  • Apple 
  • Apricot
  • Asparagus
  • Beech (common)
  • Blueberry 
  • Birch 
  • Black walnut 
  • Cherry
  • Clematis
  • Climbing hydrangeas
  • Common mallow
  • Coneflower
  • Corn (sweet)
  • Crab apple 
  • Crape myrtle
  • Dahlia
  • Daylily
  • Evening primrose
  • Gladiolus
  • Grape 
  • Hawthorn 
  • Hibiscus
  • Hollyhock
  • Horse chestnut 
  • Japanese maple
  • Larch 
  • Linden 
  • Lombardy poplar
  • Morning glory
  • Mountain ash
  • Norway maple
  • Peach 
  • Peony
  • Plum
  • Raspberry
  • Rhubarb
  • Rose
  • Sassafras 
  • Shasta daisy
  • Soybean
  • Sunflower
  • Sweet corn 
  • Sycamore
  • Viburnums
  • Virginia creeper
  • Willow
  • Zinnia


**I've used common names on purpose. I wouldn't want you to think all other cultivars were safe because I listed a single variety mentioned in the literature. Actually, the research isn't exhaustive. If you have a plant, shrub or tree that fits the general description above, or are planning to purchase one, it's worth doing some research to determine if JBs are drawn to it. After that, you can decide how important the specimen is in your landscape. Be aware that its attraction can vary over the course of a season. A plant that is not impacted much in, say, June, could become attractive after more desirable options have been defoliated by the middle of July.

The attraction of a specific plant may also be affected by the plants around it. Placing a JB target plant, like a rose bush, next to less attractive options could either conceal it somewhat, or make it less of a target if there are tastier offerings elsewhere. It's a bit like serving ice cream with Brussels sprouts or liver. Japanese beetles do have some discretion in choosing where to feed, and if you make your plants less attractive, at least when the pests first emerge, they may bother your landscape less. Japanese Beetles can actually fly long distances for good meal or a mate. They've been tracked five miles, but probably don’t wander that far very often.


Trees and Plants Japanese Beetles Don’t Like Much


  • Ageratum
  • Arborvitae
  • Artemisia
  • Begonia
  • Boxwood
  • Burning-bush
  • Catnip
  • Chives
  • Chrysanthemum 
  • Citronella
  • Columbine 
  • Coral-bells
  • Coreopsis
  • Dogwood
  • Dusty-miller
  • Forget-me-not
  • Forsythia
  • Foxglove
  • French marigold
  • Geranium
  • Hemlock
  • Hickory
  • Holly
  • Hostas
  • Impatiens
  • Juniper
  • Lantana
  • Larkspur
  • Leek
  • Lilac
  • Lily-of-the-valley
  • Magnolia
  • Mint
  • Moss-rose
  • Nasturtium
  • Northern red oak
  • Onion
  • Pachysandra
  • Pansy
  • Pine
  • Poppy
  • Red maple
  • Rue
  • Showy sedum
  • Spruce
  • Sweetgum
  • Tansy
  • Tulip poplar
  • Violet
  • Yew


Some gardeners have taken the plant repellent idea a step further and made topical sprays out herbs or other smelly plants JBs don't like. Some examples are rue, tansy, catnip and mint.

If this was a bad summer for Japanese beetles in your area, you can make next year better. You may never have a completely Japanese beetle free garden, but your plants don't have to look perforated.  You can see it takes some planning and effort, and approaching the problem on multiple fronts is a good idea. Adding nematodes or milky spore to your garden in late summer can help control localized populations, and losing some JB plant draws can reduce problems even further, as can the addition of repellent plants like catnip. Try to place repellents in areas with good air flow. That way their scent will catch JBs in flight, encouraging them to turn around before ever landing on your property.



* Note: Pesticide applied to grass in August should kill many underground grubs still feeding before the arrival of colder weather. This won't be nearly as useful later in the year, and should not be combined with either milky spore or nematode treatment.

** For more information about specific plant varieties that either attract or repel Japanese beetles, please refer to the USDA's "Japanese Beetle Handbook.  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/plant_health/2015/japanese-beetle-handbook.pdf



Refrences:

U.S. Department of Agriculture. "Controlling Japanese Beetles." National Agriculture Library. 1982. https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=CAT40000541&content=PDF

U.S. Department of Agriculture. "Managing the Japanese Beetle: A Homeowner's Handbook." Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Revised 2015. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/plant_health/2015/japanese-beetle-handbook.pdf

Ingham, Elaine R. "THE LIVING SOIL: NEMATODES" United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/soils/health/biology/?cid=nrcs142p2_053866

McGrath, Mike.  "Milky Spore Disease" Gardens Alive(Q&A). 2006.
http://www.gardensalive.com/product/milky-spore-disease/you_bet_your_garden

Potter, M.F., D.A. Potter, and L.H. Townsend. "Japanese Beetles in the Urban Landscape" University of Kentucky. 2006. https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef451


Photo Credits:

Japanese Beetle Blue Flower -  Flickr. Courtesy of User: Espie
https://www.flickr.com/photos/espie/2754686940/in/photolist

Nematode - Flickr. Courtesy of User: Christophe Quintin https://www.flickr.com/photos/34878947@N04/22938775454/in/photolist

Japanese Beetle Treats - Flickr. Courtesy of User: Vanessa Hernandez https://www.flickr.com/photos/nessamarie/5688317006/in/photolist


Japanese Beetle Grub - Flickr. Courtesy of User: Travis
https://www.flickr.com/photos/baggis/5490659687/in/photolist

Japanese Beetle Eggs - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJbeggs.jpg. Public domain photo. Source: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 'Managing the Japanese Beetle: A Homeowner's Handbook"

10 Italian Herbs To Grow in Your Garden


Fresh young basil
Italian food is one of the top three regional cuisines Americans enjoy most. It can also be one of the easiest to prepare. The secret to creating any authentic dish, whether it's an Italian red sauce or a Pakistani pulao, is in using the distinctive spices, often in combination, that give that dish its unique flavor.

The flavors of a region are a mélange, an assortment of different elements that come together the way a song comes together. Lose one and the whole suffers. When done right, regional cuisine keeps you coming back because it somehow transcends the promise of its individual ingredients.  Whether you're using a spork or dining under a crystal chandelier, herbs and spices give Italian and other regional dishes the tastes that satisfy and delight -- again and again.

Most Italian herbs and spices are easy to grow and dry, and once preserved, many will last a long time (often up to two years) without loss of flavor.  A few, like basil, are best fresh, but the effort of growing them will make it possible to create amazing meals.  With some sunshine and a little puttering in the soil, you can make Italian night at your house something special -- and that's a great reward for a gardener.

Let's look at 10 herbs that will help you create a happy Italian kitchen, a cucina felice.


10 Italian Herbs To Grow in Your Garden


Basil (Ocimum basilicum) - The main ingredient in pesto, basil is also part of the traditional flavor trinity that makes up caprese salad: mozzarella, tomatoes and fresh, young basil leaves. These three ingredients aren't just for salad, though. They're currently part of a caprese renaissance used in everything from sandwiches to appetizers.

Basil is a delicate annual that's a good producer of leaves and seeds. The seeds are also large, stay viable for years, and sprout without much of a fuss. Basil has a faintly licorice flavor that manages to be cool and refreshing. It's a nice accompaniment to salads, soups and pasta dishes that feature tomato based sauces, creamy cheeses or simple baptisms of extra virgin olive oil.  Give basil plenty of sun and water it regularly. For a little extra TLC, add a layer of mulch.

Growing Basil
Basic Basil Pesto

Tip:  Basil is at its most delicate when young. Use leaves before the plant flowers, and pinch off buds to encourage leaf development later in the season. Although the texture of basil changes when it's frozen, you can preserve prepared pesto with delicious results.  Make two batches and freeze one to enjoy later.

Oregano
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) - It may not smell or taste like it, but oregano is a member of the mint family, and a cousin to another plant on this list, marjoram.  Native to the Mediterranean, this perennial herb can have a bitter taste that compliments bright tomato based sauces and strongly flavored or fatty meats. It's a staple of Italian cooking, and often pairs with pork and seafood. Italian oregano cultivars are widely considered more mellow for culinary use than their Greek counterparts.  Like bay leaf, oregano is at its most aromatic when dried, and its dried leaves can retain their flavor for two years or more.  To avoid a bitter aftertaste, plan on adding oregano during the last half hour of cooking for most recipes.

Oregano likes good light, moderate heat and well-drained, rich soil. Although cultivars vary in hardiness, some can tolerate a light freeze. I've maintained a number outdoors in hardiness Zone 6 without problems. Avoid windy spots, and mulch plants in the fall.  Specimens can grow 2 feet high and as far across, so give them plenty of room to spread out.  Alice May Brock of Alice's Restaurant fame is widely quoted as having said: "Tomatoes and oregano make it Italian."  Oregano can be overwintered indoors, but does require at least six hours of good light, preferably from a south facing window.
Saffron Crocus Flower

Growing Oregano

Saffron (Crocus sativus) - The undisputed king of herbs, saffron is not a kitchen staple. It's one of the most expensive spices sold today, so it isn't used as extensively as it deserves. Although purchasing its distinctive red threads can put a dent in your food budget, saffron is surprisingly easy to grow if you can keep it warm but reasonably dry.  Its stratospheric retail price is the result of the labor involved in manually harvesting thousands and thousands of tiny threads from newly opened saffron flowers. If you're growing a few dozen plants for your own use, the labor is negligible, and the results can be pretty spectacular when saffron is used in rice dishes like risotto.

Saffron is a variety of crocus, like the early flowering spring bulb you love to see poking his head out of the snow, but this variety flowers in the fall.  For more information on cultivating saffron, please visit my post:

Let's Grow Saffron
Saffron Risotto


Marjoram (Origanum majorana) - A half-hardy perennial, marjoram is a subtle Italian herb related to but distinct from oregano. Where oregano can be acerbic, marjoram is delicate and refined. It's often described as having oregano's flavor without the bite. I think this nice little herb has a flavor all its own. It adds depth to dishes without becoming a standout. If you want to start experimenting with new herbs, marjoram is a good first choice for your collection. It will enhance Italian fare, but tastes just a appealing in a chicken casserole, an omelet or as a flavoring for delicate meats like veal.

Grow marjoram as you would oregano, but be aware it won't withstand frosty conditions. Marjoram manages well in a pot and can be grown or overwintered indoors.

Marjoram
Growing Marjoram

Parsley - Parsley is the black pepper of green herbs. It's pervasive in recipes, but doesn't get much respect. Consigned to the garnish side of the platter most of the time, its bright green color adds appeal soups, stews and casseroles. It helps cut the greasy texture of fatty roasts, and contains a surprising number of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals -- luteolin, vitamins A, C and K, and a freight of minerals like copper, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese and iron. Parsley falls into two broad categories: cooking parsley (Italian parsley also known as flat leaf), and ruffled or curly parsley typically used as a garnish.

This popular herb can cause confusion in the garden because it sprouts and produces abundant leaves the first year, goes to sleep in winter and wakes up the following spring to flower, set seed and die back early.  This two season growth habit makes it a biennial. It's easy to accommodate parsley plants in the garden. Plant seedlings annually while leaving the old plants in place long enough to harvest seed.

Hint: If you've had problems sprouting parsley seeds in the past, there's a trick to it. The seeds are hard and need an overnight soaking to soften them up. Start with hot (not boiling) water.

Growing Parsley

Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) - Like oregano, bay leaf (also called sweet bay) is at its best once dried.  It is the product of a tree that can grow to 40 feet or more under the right conditions, so growing this herb takes commitment unless you confine it to a pot. It's a slow grower that prefers rich, well-drained soil and bright light. Often described as having a taste that combines the flavors of thyme and oregano, bay is a common ingredient used to add complexity and aroma to long cooking stocks, sauces and stews. It is included at the beginning instead of the end of most recipes, so it has adequate dwell time to work its magic.

Rosemary
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) - Rosemary is one of the most distinctive herbs used in cooking. It's long, narrow needles foreshadow its piney aroma and an astringent flavor that works wonderfully well with roasted potatoes, lamb or pork. Rosemary is also at home in poultry, bean and fish dishes.  Like bay, it's usually added at the start of the cooking process. It is also a common ingredient in grilled recipes, where its stems are sometimes used as kabob skewers or soaked and added to the coals to produce an aromatic smoke. (Both these techniques are easy to employ if you have a stock of rosemary growing in your backyard.)

Give rosemary a sunny location and soil that drains well. It will usually benefit from the addition of lime to the soil, too. You can give your plant a lime boost by adding in dried, crushed eggshells. Although rosemary is not typically frost tolerant, some of the newer cultivars are cold hardy to Zone 6 or so.  (Start your search with the Arp cultivar.) A slow starter, rosemary can be trained into an attractive hedge, but it will take a number of years for plants to fill in well. In cold climates, potted rosemary plants can be overwintered indoors.

Tip: The next time you have a headache, try making rosemary tea. Pour 8 ounces of boiling water over four sprigs of fresh rosemary and let the decoction steep for 5 minutes before drinking.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) - Thyme enhances tomato based sauces, which makes it a natural for southern Italian cuisine. It is often served in dishes that feature peppers, beans, eggplant or shellfish.

Although there are many types of thyme, thymus vulgaris, or common thyme, is the most popular culinary variety. It's a perennial herb that has a reputation for determination. It will grow in barren, sunny areas where other plants fail, and look pretty good doing it. For optimum growing conditions, give thyme a sunny location with soil that drains well. Thyme is drought tolerant.

Thyme for the Garden

Garlic (Allium sativum) - It isn't Italian food without the addition of at least a little garlic. This strongly flavored herb is a member of the onion family. Like many root crops, garlic is frost hardy and prefers rich, loamy soil. It also likes a sunny location away from wind.  You can buy a garlic bulb at the market and start it in your garden in either spring or fall by planting the individual cloves two inches deep and four inches apart (pointy end up). Market garlic will likely grow fine, but may be a slow starter depending on how it was originally treated for sale. You can also purchase garden prepped garlic starts online or from your local nursery. To preserve fresh garlic for cooking, peel cloves and place them in white vinegar in your refrigerator. You can also store whole or chopped cloves in olive oil (always in the fridge). The flavored oil can later be used in cooking.

Pepperoncini
Peppers - Numerous regional cuisines make use of hot peppers to add a spicy surprise to recipes. The nature of those peppers is ever changing, though. From Scotch bonnets to ghost peppers, every year sees the addition of a new, Scoville scale busting pepper making the rounds. If you're cooking Italian, there's merit in sticking with the classic peppers used by generations of Italian cooks. They include: pimento, cayenne, wax pepper, friggitelli (sweet chili pepper), paprika, pepperoncini (hot Italian chili peppers), and peperoni (bell pepper).  Most can be cultivated as you'd grow a common bell pepper.



Photo Credits

Basil - Flickr photo - Courtesy of user: Tony Austin
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tonyaustin/4586998140/in/photolist  

Pesto - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Katrin Gilger 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/diekatrin/5568158443/in/photolist

Oregano - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Amy G
https://www.flickr.com/photos/apple_pathways/5772921445/in/photolist

Saffron - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Nick Perla
ttps://www.flickr.com/photos/vibrantspirit/2411000332/in/photolist

Saffron Risotto -  Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: ulterior epicure
https://www.flickr.com/photos/ulteriorepicure/525759080/in/photolist

Marjoram - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Larry Hoffman 
https://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesarasota/3586951470/in/photolist

Rosemary - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Hidetsugu Tonomura
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tonomura/200569204/in/photolist

Thyme - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Erutuon
https://www.flickr.com/photos/erutuon/540937259/in/photolist

Garlic- Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Mat_the_W
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mat_the_w/3699159218/in/photolist

Pepperoncini - Flicker photo - Courtesy of User: Justin Dolske
https://www.flickr.com/photos/dolske/7664504850/in/photolist